Identification of superior cowpea varieties in competition with weeds

Isis Fernanda Silva Medeiros, Paulo Sérgio Lima Silva, Roberto Pequeno Sousa, Patrícia Liany Oliveira Fernandes Siqueira, Vianney Reinaldo Oliveira

Resumo


Cowpea varieties that are more competitive against weeds are, by themselves, not enough to control the weeds. However, the adoption of more-competitive varieties, together with other cropping practices, including planting density and weeding, can provide greater weed control in addition to affording the farmer more time to carry out this control. This study had the following objectives: a) to identify, in a preliminary evaluation (E-1), varieties that are the most competitive against weeds, based on dry grain yield; b) among the most-competitive varieties, identify the most productive in terms of green and dry grain yield (E-2). The seeds used for E-1 were obtained from producers chosen at random from each of 48 districts in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. A randomized block design with five replications was used. In E-2, the twelve varieties presenting the highest grain yield in E-1 were evaluated in a randomized block design with five replications. In both evaluations, only one weeding was carried out, 30 days after sowing. In E-1, the Umarizal, Itaú, Upanema, Lagoa de Pedras, José da Penha and São Tomé varieties were superior. The second experiment demonstrated that Umarizal is the most productive variety in terms of pod yield and green grain. There is no difference between the varieties for dry grain yield. The Umarizal variety has potential for use in the production of green pods and grains, and of dry grains. The preliminary evaluation is effective in identifying superior varieties.


Palavras-chave


Vigna unguiculata. Landraces. Immature grain. Ripe grain. Macassar beans.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


ALIKO, A.A.; MUKHTAR, F.B.; AMINU S.U.; GASHUA, I.B. Effect of harvest period on senescence and grain yield in some varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Nature and Science, v. 11, n. 10, p. 29-33, 2013.

ARAÚJO, S.M.S. A região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil: questões ambientais e possibilidades de uso sustentável dos recursos. Rios Eletrônica - Revista Científica da FASETE, v. 5, n. 5, p. 89-98, 2011.

ARRUDA, R.L.; NUNES, M.V.; SILVA, P.R.; LEÃO, F.F.; SARMENTO, R.A.; NUNES, T.V.; ERASMO, E.A.L. Glycerine associated molecules with herbicide for controlling Adenocalymma peregrinum in cultivated pastures. African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 14, n. 45, p. 3075-3081, 2015.

BRAUN, H. I. The collected works of John W. Tukey. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1994. 560 p. V. VIII (Multiple comparisons: 1948-1983).

CARVALHO, F.P.; SANTOS, J.B.; CURY, J.P.; VALADÃO SILVA, D.; BRAGA, R.R.; BYRRO, E.C.M. Alocação de matéria seca e capacidade competitiva de cultivares de milho com plantas daninhas. Planta Daninha, v. 29, n. 2, p. 373-382, 2011.

FERREIRA, D. F. SISVAR: programa estatístico, versão 5.3 (Build 75). Lavras: Universidade Federal de Lavras, 2010.

HOCK, S.M.; KNEZEVIC, S.Z.; MARTIN, A.R.; LINDQUIST, J.L. Soybean row spacing and weed emergence time influence weed competitiveness and competitive indices. Weed Science, v. 54, n. 1, p. 38-46, 2006.

LIMA, R.S.; JOSÉ, A.R.S.; SOARES, M.R.S.; MOREIRA, E.S.; ARAÚJO NETO, A.C.; CARDOSO, A.D.; MORAIS, O.M. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi no município de Vitória da Conquista – BA. Magistra, v. 28, n. 3/4, p. 390-402, 2016.

MEKONNEN, G.; SHARMA, J.J.; LISANEWORK, N.; TANA, T. Effect of planting pattern and weeding frequency on weed infestation, yield components and yield of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Wollo, Northern Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, v. 6, n. 4, p. 111-122, 2017.

METCALFE, H.; MILNE, A.E.; WEBSTER, R.; LARK, R.M.; MURDOCH, A.J.; STORKEY, J. Designing a sampling scheme to reveal correlations between weeds and soil properties at multiple spatial scales. Weed Research, v. 56, n. 1, p. 1-13, 2016.

MFEKA, N.; MULIDZI, R.A.; LEWU, F.B. Growth and yield parameters of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) lines as affected by planting date and zinc application rate. South African Journal of Science, v. 115, n. 1/2, p. 1-8, 2019.

NOGUEIRA, D.A.; PEREIRA, G.M. Desempenho de testes para homogeneidade de variâncias em delineamentos inteiramente casualizado. Sigmae, v. 2, n. 1, p. 7-22. 2013.

PEREIRA, M.R.R.; SOUZA, G.S.F.; SILVA, J.I.C.; MARTINS, D. Herbicidas inibidores da accase em plantas de Cenchrus echinatus em estresse hídrico Bioscience Journal, v. 31, n. 1, p. 96-106, 2015.

SALIFOU, M.; TIGNEGRE, J.B.L.S.; TONGOONA, P.; OFFEI, S.; OFORI, K.; DANQUAH, E. Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot spots in Niger. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, v. 11, n. 4, p. 1413-1423, 2017.

SANTOS, H. G.; JACOMINE, P. T. ANJOS, L. H. C.; OLIVEIRA, V. A. de; V. LUMBRERAS, J. F.; COELHO, M. R.; ALMEIDA, J. A.; ARAÚJO FILHO, J. C.; OLIVEIRA, J. B.; CUNHA, T. J. F. Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. 5. ed. Brasília, DF : Embrapa, 2018. 590 p.

SCOTT, A.J.; KNOTT, M.A. A cluster analysis method for grouping means in the analysis of variance. Biometrics, v. 30, n. 3, p.507-512, 1974.

TAKIM, F.O.; UDDIN II, R.O. Effect of weed removal on insect populations and yield of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp]. Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering, v. 1, n. 5, p. 194-199, 2010.

VANDELEUR, R.K.; GILL, G.S. The impact of plant breeding on the grain yield and the competitive ability of wheat in Australia. Crop & Pasture Science, v. 55, n. 8, p.855-861, 2004.

YADAV, T.; CHOPRA, N.K.; CHOPRA, N.K.; YADAV, M.R.; KUMAR, R.; RATHORE, D.K.; SOLNIL, P.G.; MAKARANA, G.; TAMTA, A.; KUSHWAH, M.; RAM, H.; MEENA, R.K.; SINGH, M. Weed management in cowpea - A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, v. 6, n. 2, p. 1373-1385, 2017.

ZHAI, L.; XIE, R.; WANG, P.; LIU, G.; FAN, P.; LI, S. Impact of recent breeding on the competitiveness of Chinese maize hybrids. Field Crops Research, v. 191, p.75-82, 2016.

ZYSTRO, J.P.; LEON, N.; TRACY, W.F. Analysis of traits related to weed competitiveness in sweet corn (Zea mays L.). Sustainability, v. 4, n. 3, p.543-560, 2012.




Revista Ciência Agronômica ISSN 1806-6690 (online) 0045-6888 (impresso), Site: www.ccarevista.ufc.br, e-mail: ccarev@ufc.br - Fone: (85) 3366.9702 - Expediente: 2ª a 6ª feira - de 7 às 17h.