Environmental impact of different agricultural production systems

Erialdo de Oliveira Feitosa, Fernando Bezerra Lopes, Eunice Maia de Andrade, Ana Caroline Messias de Magalhães, Cley Anderson Silva de Freitas

Resumo


The efficient use of natural resources in production systems is essential for achieving ecological balance and sustainability in these systems. Current agricultural production systems have intensified the use of fertilisers and pesticides that contribute to an increase in energy flow, accelerating the process of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using emergy analysis, the environmental performance of different irrigated production systems for different sources of water, energy and fertiliser, and of rainfed systems under different types of soil preparation. The irrigated systems were studied in the experimental area of the Sewage Treatment Station (ETE) in Tianguá, Ceará (CE), and the rainfed models at the Fazenda Normal Farm in Quixeramobim, CE. Emergy analysis basically consists of three stages: construction of the systemic energy flow diagram, elaboration of the emergy evaluation table, and calculation of the emergy indicators. A mean value of 0.04 was found under the rainfed production systems, which shows less environmental stress compared to the irrigated systems, 0.30. The influx of economic resources into agricultural systems increases the environmental load and reduces renewability. Treated domestic effluent and photovoltaic solar energy afforded an increase in emergy yield and in the environmental sustainability of the production models.

Palavras-chave


Production models; Irrigation; Rainfed system; Environmental performance

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ALBUQUERQUE, R. C.; DANTAS NETO, J.; SILVA NETO, A. G. Avaliação emergética da cultura da mamona consorciada com cana-de-açúcar irrigada em clima semiárido. Revista Verde, v. 7, n. 3, p. 156-162, 2012.

ALLEN, R. G. et al. Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Rome: FAO, 1998. (FAO. Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 56).

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 22. ed. 2012.

AQUINO, A. B. et al. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o estado do Ceará. Fortaleza: UFC, 1993. 247 p.

BARBOSA, M. P. Desertificação no Estado da Paraíba. Campina Grande: CTRN, 2006.

BASTIANONI, S.; MARCHETTINI, N. The problem of co-production in environmental accounting by emergy analysis. Ecological Modelling, v. 129, p. 187-193, 2000.

BISARO, A. et al. Global drivers setting desertification research priorities: insights from a stakeholder consultation forum. Land Degradation & Development, v. 25, p. 5-16, 2014.

BROWN, M. T.; ULGIATI, S. Emergy analysis and environmental accounting. Encyclopedia Energy, v. 2, n. 2, p. 329-354, 2004.

FEITOSA, E. O. et al. Sustainability of different production systems papaya (Carica papaya L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) in the semi-arid region. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, v. 79, n. 1, 2019.

FURTINI NETO, A. E. et al. Fertilidade do solo. Lavras, MG: UFLA, 2001. 261 p.

GHALEY, B. B.; PORTER, J. R. Emergy synthesis of a combined food and energy production system compared to a conventional wheat (Triticum a estivum) production system. Ecological Indicators, v. 24, n. 1, p. 534-542, 2013.

GIAMPIETRO, M.; CERRETELLI, G.; PIMENTEL, D. Energy analysis of agricultural ecosystem management: human return and sustainability. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, v. 38, p. 219-244, 1992.

GONÇALVES, L. F. et al. Uso da emergia para análise da contabilidade ambiental na produção convencional de morango no município de Espírito Santo do Dourado (MG). Revista Agrogeoambiental, v. 10, n. 2, 2018.

LA ROSA, A. D.; SIRACUSA, G.; CAVALLARO, R. Emergy evaluation of Sicilian red orange production. A comparison between organic and conventional farming. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1907-1918, 2008.

LOPES, F. B. et al. Indicadores de sustentabilidade do Perímetro Irrigado Baixo Acaraú, Ceará, empregando a análise multivariada. Revista Ciência Agronômica, v. 40, n. 1, p. 17 -26, 2009a.

LOPES, F. B. et al. Proposta de um índice de sustentabilidade do Perímetro Irrigado Baixo Acaraú, Ceará, Brasil. Revista Ciência Agronômica, v. 40, n. 2, p. 185- 93, 2009b.

MARIANI, L. et al. Análise de oportunidades e desafios para o Nexo Água-Energia. Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente, v. 37, n. 5, p. 9-30, 2016.

MEIRELES, A. C. M.; ARAUJO NETO, J. R.; OLIVEIRA, L. J. Sustentabilidade do modelo agrícola da bacia do riacho Faé. Revista Ciência Agronômica, v. 42, n. 1, p. 84-91, 2011.

ODUM, H. T. Environmental accounting: emergy and environmental decision making. New York: John Wiley, 1996. 370 p.

ORTEGA, E. et al. Análise emergética de sistemas de produção de olerícolas sob manejo orgânico. Pesquisa Aplicada & Agrotecnologia, v. 3, n. 3, 2010.

PEREIRA, C. L. F.; ORTEGA, E. Sustainability of large-scale etanol production from sugarcane. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 18, n. 1, p. 77-82, 2010.

RABELO, D. R. Evidências da degradação ambiental na vertente seca da Serra de Uruburetama, Ceará - Brasil. Revista Geonorte, v. 8, n. 29, p. 72-85, 2017.

SANTINI, M. et al. A multicomponent GIS framework for desertification risk assessment by an integrated index. Applied Geography, v. 30, p. 394-415, 2010.

TOTINO, M. Síntesis emergética como herramienta de comparación entre dos sistemas de producción agrícola argentinos: chaco seco y pampa ondulada. Revista Iberoamericana de Economía Ecológica, v. 26, n. 1, p. 123-139. 2016.

VEISI, H. et al. Emergy evaluation of the performance and sustainability of three agricultural systems: case of winter wheat, grain corn and spring forage corn in Dezful at Khozestan province, Iran. Journal of Agroecology, v. 6, n. 2, p. 139-160, 2016.

VITÓRIA, E. L.; RODRIGUES, J. P. Emergy efficiency analysis of sugarcane as a raw material for ethanol production. Revista Ciência Agronômica, v. 47, n. 4, p. 616-623, 2016.




Revista Ciência Agronômica ISSN 1806-6690 (online) 0045-6888 (impresso), Site: www.ccarevista.ufc.br, e-mail: ccarev@ufc.br - Fone: (85) 3366.9702 - Expediente: 2ª a 6ª feira - de 7 às 17h.